From adolescence to menopause, follow-up is essential. It provides contraception, replacement therapy and cancer screening.

PAP Smear Test


  • Why should I have a PAP test done? What is cervical cancer screening? Should I always ask for an HPV test?


Cervical cancer screening detects dysplastic cells as a precursor of cancer of the uterine neck (cervical cancer), thereby making treatment possible before such cells develop into cancer cells.


Cancer may also be detected. Screening is performed using cells from the cervical neck (PAP smear or PAP test) and possibly a test for the human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus that can contribute to the development of cancer if the results from cell analysis make it necessary.



  • How we obtain a cervical sample?


Cell samples for cervical cell analysis (cytology) and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing are obtained during the speculum examination with a cervical brush from the external surface of the cervix (ectocervix) and the cervical canal (endocervix) to evaluate the transformation zone (squamocolumnar junction), the area at greatest risk for dysplasia.


We use liquid-based, thin layer preparation, a method that is suitable for both microscopic analysis and HPV testing.



  • What other test can be done the same time?


Liquid-based cytology systems also enable testing for gonorrhea, chlamydia, mycoplasma and ureaplasma from the same specimen.



  • I have my period… Can we carry out the PAP smear?


It is better to perform it than to defer the test, unless bleeding is very heavy. Cleaning the cervix during the speculum exam removes obscuring blood and has a minimal or no effect on sample cellularity.



  • My gynecologist did a biopsy during the exam…

During the speculum examination we perform a colposcopy, a microscopic examination of the uterine junctional zone. If during this exam we find suspicious lesions, a biopsy (tissue sample) will be taken.



  • I received a letter inviting me for a follow-up. Do I have to worry?

There can be many reasons for a follow-up. You should not hesitate and ask your specialist for further information.



Human Papilloma-Virus


  • What is HPV or Human Papillomavirus? How can I get infected?


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that is spread by skin-to-skin contact, including sexual intercourse (vaginal sex), oral sex, anal sex, or any other contact involving the genital area (eg, hand to genital contact).


Condoms do not provide complete protection from HPV infection because condoms do not cover all exposed genital skin.


It has been estimated that 75 to 80 percent of sexually active adults will acquire HPV infection before the age of 50.



  • I have HPV. What should I do?


There are numerous human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, and their association with cancer risk varies.


For cervical cancer there are two groups depending on their risk for malignancy:

  1. High-risk – HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68
  2. Low-risk – 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 61, 72, 73, and 81


Even if you a have a high risk HPV, you should not worried. It is only considerd as a risk factor.


More than 75% of the population has HPV, and the big majority of the population never have any serious problems.




  • Should I get vaccinated against HPV?


There are a few types of vaccines existing against the HPV and a vaccinating program is established in Luxembourg. Do not hesitate to discusse this issue with your specialist.


L'Institut de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique

121 A route d'Arlon / L-1150 LUXEMBOURG